Implementation of a Microcontroller Arduino for Portable Peak Expiratory Flow Rate to Examine the Lung Health
Keywords:Microcontroller, Peak Flow Meter, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, PEFR, MPX5100GP
A peak flow meter will measure the ability to push air out of the lungs; the lungs are one of the body's most vital organs. The commonly used method is to deploy a peak flow meter, which uses mechanical systems. This mechanical system is prone to a high error rate of reading, and as a result, a more accurate and reliable means becomes inevitable. This paper describes the design and implementation of a micro-controller-based portable peak flow meter, which can be used to provide accurate data for the diagnosis of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. In the heart of the system are the programmable Mega Arduino microcontroller and a device called MPX5100GP sensor, which has a pressure range of 0-100 Kpa to detect a patient breath. The device was equipped with a display facility, which uses Nextion touch TFT output to display related tests and examinations. There is also a provision to store the results data using SD Card, while a printer prints the test results for further diagnostic purposes. An experimental setup in the laboratory shows that the designed micro-controller-based PFM shows that the error rate was between 0.50 % and 4.21 % compared with the mechanical-based peak flow meter. The application of micro-controller-based peak flow meters also allows real-time and remote monitoring of peak flow parameters. The evolution of modern technology has made the possibility of developing a micro-controller based portable, peak flow meters, which can be used to measure the data involved in the diagnosis of lung-related diseases more accurately.
S. C. Dharmage, J. L. Perret, and A. Custovic, “Epidemiology of asthma in children and adults,” Front. Pediatr., vol. 7, no. JUN, pp. 1–15, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fped.2019.00246.
D. Cross and H. S. Nelson, “David Cross, MD, DfW and Harold S. Nelson, MD,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 120–128, 1991.
F. B. Irani and P. U. Shinde, “Research Article Peak Expiratory Flow Rate ( Pefr ): Conclusion and Recommendation,” 2014.
P. M. O’Byrne et al., “Inhaled Combined Budesonide–Formoterol as Needed in Mild Asthma,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 378, no. 20, pp. 1865–1876, 2018, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1715274.
B. O. Adeniyi and G. E. Erhabor, “The peak flow meter and its use in clinical practice,” African J. Respir. Med., no. January 2011, pp. 5–8, 2011.
M. Laghrouche, R. Saddaoui, I. Mellal, M. Nachef, and S. Ameur, “Low-cost Embedded Spirometer Based on Commercial Micro Machined Platinum Thin Film,” Procedia Eng., vol. 168, pp. 1681–1684, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.489.
S. Ghazal-Musmar, M. Musmar, and W. A. Minawi, “Comparison of peak expiratory flow rates applying European and Iranian equations to Palestinian students,” East. Mediterr. Heal. J., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 386–290, 2010, doi: 10.26719/2010.16.4.386.
B. Mehta, K. Garg, S. Ambwani, B. Bhandari, and O. L. Bhagat, “Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: A Useful Tool for Early Detection of Airway Obstruction in School Children,” Open Med. J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 159–165, 2016, doi: 10.2174/1874220301603010159.
S. Natarajan, J. Castner, and A. H. Titus, “Smart phone compatible peak expiratory flow meter,” 2014 IEEE Healthc. Innov. Conf. HIC 2014, pp. 141–144, 2014, doi: 10.1109/HIC.2014.7038894.
Global Initiative for Asthma, “Asthma management and prevention for adults and children older than 5 years. GINA guidelines,” 2020. www.ginasthma.org.
B. Foresto, E. D. Tenda, and C. M. Rumende, “Obstruksi Saluran Napas pada Non Small Carcinoma : Sebuah Laporan Kasus,” Int. J. Chest, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 124–130, 2015.
C. Pothirat et al., “Peak expiratory flow rate as a surrogate for forced expiratory volume in 1 second in COPD severity classification in Thailand.,” Int. J. Chron. Obstruct. Pulmon. Dis., vol. 10, pp. 1213–1218, 2015, doi: 10.2147/COPD.S85166.
F. Alanazi, “Comparison between Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) in monitoring the airway status of students studying in College of Applied Medical Sciences.” 2017.
S. K. Padaki, D. Amrut, and P. Kokiwar, “Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad,” Int. J. Med. Res. Heal. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 870, 2014, doi: 10.5958/2319-5886.2014.00017.4.
M. Metha, “To Find out the Effect of Various Body Positions on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) in COPD Patients,” Int. J. Physiother., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 291–296, 2016, doi: 10.15621/ijphy/2016/v3i3/100830.
M. K. Singh and A. S. Solanki, “A study of Peak expiratory flow rate and Vital capacity between Indoor and Outdoor games male players,” vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 2016.
S. O. George and L. M. Chandan, “A Study Of Peak Expiretory Flow Rate In Air-Condition Users,” Int. J. Basic Appl. Physiol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 151–154, 2012.
U. Bedi, “A study of peak expiratory flow rate in normal healthy children of Punjab,” Int. J. Med. Dent. Sci., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1042–1047, 2016, doi: 10.19056/ijmdsjssmes/2016/v5i1/83573.
S. Bansal, V. Tiwari, S. Sood, and R. Shukla, “Comparative Evaluation of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate between Computerized Spirometry and Peak Flow Meter,” Int. J. Adv. Integr. Med. Sci., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 93–94, 2016, doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10050-10032.
M. C. WRIGHT BM, “Maximum forced expiratory flow rate as a measure of ventilatory capacity: with a description of a new portable instrument for measuring it,” pp. 1041–1047, 1959.
I. Safitri, “Peak Flow Meter Portable With Storage.,” 2017.
N. Garnis, E. Yulianto, and T. Hamzah, “Peak Flow Meter Equipped with Inspection Results Indicator,” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2019, doi: 10.1234/jeeemi.v1i1.9xx.
Anisa, “Peak Flow Meter With Measurement Result and Storage.” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2020. doi: 10.1234/jeeemi.v1i1.9xx.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Nabilla Farikha Azzahra, Priyambada Cahya Nugraha, Torib Hamzah, Kamilu O. Lawal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlikel 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).