Prevalence of Undernutrition and Associated Factors: A Cross-sectional Study among Rural Toddlers in Bangka Belitung, Indonesia


  • Eka Safitri Yanti PUI-PK Poltekkes Kemenkes Pangkalpinang, Indonesia
  • Tesza Rezky Permata PUI-PK Poltekkes Kemenkes Pangkalpinang, Indonesia



CIAF, Development, Growth, Malnutrition.


Malnutrition in toddlers is known to cause disturbances for growth and development. The impact on poor mental development and school achievement and disorders. Conventional tools are often used to predict this risk. On the other hand, the classification of nutritional disorders using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) can predict this risk better. The CIAF method is an anthropometric index that combines the three indices of weight/age, height/age, and weight/height to determine the nutritional status of toddlers. Based on Riskesdas data in 2018, the prevalence of stunting under five in Indonesia reaches 30.8% or around 7 million children under five suffer from stunting. This situation is greater than the maximum stunting prevalence limit set by WHO, which is 20%. The prevalence of stunting under five in the Province of the Bangka Belitung Islands is 23.37% where the highest cases occur in West Bangka Regency. However, West Bangka Regency in particular and the Province of the Bangka Belitung Islands in general have not classified malnutrition that occurs based on CIAF. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and the factors that influence it in West Bangka. This study aims to determine the prevalence of undernutrition based on the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) and the factors that influence it. This research is a descriptive analytic study with a cross sectional design which was conducted for 10 (ten) months in West Bangka Regency. A sample of 155 toddlers was taken by using multistage random sampling technique. The instruments used include a questionnaire about the characteristics, characteristics of parents, and family economy. The measurement tools used to assess nutritional status are in the form of calibrated digital weight and height scales. The results show that 48.4% or almost half of the respondents experience growth and development failure. Most failure to thrive was in the stunting and underweight category (21.3%) and the least was in the wasting only category (1.3%). Type, age of the child, mother's age, mother's education and household income are not variables that affect the nutritional status of children. Further research is needed with a wider scope of variables so that it can be found what are the factors that influence the occurrence of malnutrition


Download data is not yet available.


M. Basorudin and N. Humairo, “Analisis preferensi pilihan jenis pekerjaan di Bangka Belitung,” Jurnal Paradigma Ekonomika, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–8, May 2019, doi: 10.22437/paradigma.v14i1.5435.

R. E. Black et al., “Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries,” The Lancet, vol. 382, no. 9890, pp. 427–451, 2013, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60937-X.

V. J. B. Martins et al., “Long-lasting effects of undernutrition,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1817–1846, 2011, doi: 10.3390/ijerph8061817.

R. E. Black et al., “Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9608, pp. 243–260, 2008, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61690-0.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, “Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2018,” Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. p. 198, 2019.

Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, “Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung 2019,” Pangkal Pinang, 2020.

A. Porwal et al., “Socio-economic inequality in anthropometric failure among children aged under 5 years in India: evidence from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016-18.,” Int J Equity Health, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 176, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12939-021-01512-4.

H. Wamani, A. N. Astrøm, S. Peterson, J. K. Tumwine, and T. Tylleskär, “Boys are more stunted than girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys.,” BMC Pediatr, vol. 7, p. 17, Apr. 2007, doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-7-17.

A. Rahman and S. Chowdhury, “Determinants of chronic malnutrition among preschool children in Bangladesh.,” J Biosoc Sci, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2007, doi: 10.1017/S0021932006001295.

H. Wamani, T. Tylleskär, A. N. Astrøm, J. K. Tumwine, and S. Peterson, “Mothers’ education but not fathers’ education, household assets or land ownership is the best predictor of child health inequalities in rural Uganda.,” Int J Equity Health, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 9, Oct. 2004, doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-3-9.

S. Thurstans et al., “Boys are more likely to be undernourished than girls: a systematic review and meta-analysis of sex differences in undernutrition.,” BMJ Glob Health, vol. 5, no. 12, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004030.

N. Endris, H. Asefa, and L. Dube, “Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children in Rural Ethiopia.,” Biomed Res Int, vol. 2017, p. 6587853, 2017, doi: 10.1155/2017/6587853.

K. Mengistu and K. Alemu, “Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors Among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State,” J Nutr Disord Ther, vol. 01, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.4172/2161-0509-3-T1-001.

M. Myatt et al., “Children who are both wasted and stunted are also underweight and have a high risk of death: a descriptive epidemiology of multiple anthropometric deficits using data from 51 countries.,” Arch Public Health, vol. 76, p. 28, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s13690-018-0277-1.

M. Garenne et al., “Changing sex differences in undernutrition of African children: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys.,” J Biosoc Sci, pp. 1–11, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1017/S0021932021000468.

L. S. Adair and D. K. Guilkey, “Age-specific determinants of stunting in Filipino children.,” J Nutr, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 314–320, Feb. 1997, doi: 10.1093/jn/127.2.314.

E. Moiseeva Karina, O. Ivanov Dimitry, V. Alekseeva Anna, D. Kharbediya Shalva, and N. Berezkina Elena, “Influence of mother’s age on infant child’s nutrition,” Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacologia y Terapeutica, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 215–220, 2020.

A. Wemakor, H. Garti, T. Azongo, H. Garti, and A. Atosona, “Young maternal age is a risk factor for child undernutrition in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana,” BMC Res Notes, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3980-7.

H. H. Bernardus, C. F. Mamuaja, and J. Y. E. Oessoe, “Relationship between Parents Education Level and Mother’s Knowledge with Nutritional Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months at Tareran Community Health Center Working Area at Tareran Sub-District, South Minahasa Regency,” Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, vol. 3, no. 1, 2015.

R. Mukherjee, S. Chaturvedi, and R. Bhalwar, “Determinants of Nutritional Status of School Children,” Med J Armed Forces India, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 227–231, 2008, doi:

S. Singh, S. Srivastava, and A. K. Upadhyay, “Socio-economic inequality in malnutrition among children in India: An analysis of 640 districts from National Family Health Survey (2015-16),” Int J




How to Cite

E. S. Yanti and T. R. Permata, “Prevalence of Undernutrition and Associated Factors: A Cross-sectional Study among Rural Toddlers in Bangka Belitung, Indonesia ”, International Journal of Advanced Health Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, Feb. 2023.



Health Science